Last Updated: 25 September 2019.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (ASC) was commissioned during the reign of King Alfred the Great. It lists important events in the history of the British Isles from prehistory until the twelfth century.1 As is often the case with medieval manuscripts, there is not just one copy written by one person, but various copies written in different centuries by different scribes who made additions and omitted material. Today, there are nine surviving manuscripts. All have been identified and classified in the nineteenth century.
Mss A, Peterborough manuscript.
(a) aka Winchester or Parker Copy, formerly C.C.C. Cant. 173 now Cambridge MS 173. Written between 9th–11th century. Located in Corpus Christ College, Cambridge.
(b) aka Mss G, Cotton MS. Otho B xi, 2. Fragment. Copied early eleventh century. Located at the British Library.
Mss B, aka Abingdon I, Cotton MS Tiberius A VI. Copied late tenth century. Located at the British Library.
Mss C, aka Abingdon II, Cotton MS Tiberius B I. Copied eleventh century. Located at the British Library.
Mss D, aka Worcester Copy, Cotton MS Tiberius B IV. Copied mid-late eleventh century. Located at the British Library.
Mss E, aka The Laud or Peterborough Chronicle. Copied twelfth century. Located in the Bodleian Library, Oxford.
Mss F, aka Bilingual Canterbury Epitome, Cotton MS Domitian A VIII. Written late eleventh century. Located at the British Library.
Mss H, Cotton Domit. A ix. Fragment. Copied twelfth century. Located at the British Library.
Mss I, an Easter table chronicle. Cotton Caligula A xv. Located at the British Library.
The Chronicle in the Viking Age
Evidence from the Viking Age is based on medieval recordings and archaeological findings. The ASC is rather detailed source of events and contains a lot of information about Viking raids, movements and other events. Many would not have been known if not for the ASC.3
Below is a summary of James Ingram’s translation of The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. It is freely available via the Gutenberg project.4 The summary is based on the terms ‘Danes’, ‘heathens’ and ‘sea pirates’ as mentioned in the ASC and the accompanying year. The word ‘Dane’ is a rather general term here. The mercenary bands and armies did not exist of only Danes but also of Norwegians and Swedes.5
787–865 CE: The First Wave of Attacks
The Danes arrive in 787 CE with three ships. It is not said where they land, only that they kill a local reeve. More infamous is the next recording of Holy-island6 in 793. One year later a heathen army attacks Northumbria. After these early raids it is rather quiet for a few decades. The most important mention is Charlemagne’s death in 812 and another raid in 823 on the Isle of Sheppey.7Throughout the 830s and 40s, king Egbert fights off the Danes all along the southern coast of England. At one point even along the Welsh at Hengeston. The Danes claim the most victories and their raids continue.
The battle of Wemburg takes place in 851.8 The Anglo-Saxons fight the Danes on two fronts. Both the land army at Wemburg as the naval army at Sandwich defeat the Danes. Instead of heading home, the ASC records the first winter camp of the Scandinavians on the Isle of Thanet. With in a year, another fleet of Danes arrive at the Thames estuary and attacks Canterbury and London before heading into Surrey. The Danes suffer more defeats at the battle of Ockley,9 and then again on Thanet in 853. Again, they do not head back home, but move their winter camp to the Isle of Sheppey in 854. More defeats follow in 860 as a large, newly arrived Danish fleet arrives. The winter camp is back on the Isle of Thanet. They annoy the surrounding area enough for the Kents to offer the first tribute or danegeld in 865. Both a truce and money are offered, but the Danes continue their raids.
866–878 CE: The Great Heathen Army
In 866 a large Danish army arrives and sets up winter camp in East Anglia. When they arrive, they make peace with the locals and acquire horses. Once settled, they start raiding the region for over a decade. Between 866 and 871 the army moves to Northumbria and conquers York, and a winter camp is set up in Nottingham. They attack York yet again and then the army moves, via Mercia, back to East Anglia. In 870 the winter camp is at Thetford.
King Ethered10 and his brother Alfred make a firm stand in 871 when the Danes move to Reading. There are wins and losses on both sides. Ethered dies and Alfred succeeds him. He continues to fight as the heathen army moves up and down the country between 871 and 878. There are winter camps at Reading (872), Torksey (873), Repton (874) and near the River Tine11 (875). Finally, Alfred manages to bring the Danes to a hold at the battle of Edington. He defeats the Danish king Guthrum and the truce of Wedmore seals their peace.
880–891: Vikings head to Francia
Despite their defeat, the army still exists in 879. Guthrum retreats to Mercia and settles there as its king. The rest of the army moves to Northumbria and by 880 even to Francia. The Frankish campaign continues in earnest once they have horses. The Vikings quickly move further inland. Meanwhile, there are still skirmishes in Anglo-Saxon England. Alfred’s fleet defeats a Danish fleet in 882, and keeps another army out of London in 883. The Danes in Francia have arrived in Amiens in 884, whilst Alfred successfully fights land and naval armies in 885. And as a winter camp is set up in Paris, Alfred fortifies London. By 890, Guthrum dies and the Danish army moves to Brittany.
The attacks on England increase again by 893 when a new fleet lands in Kent. In 894, another eventful year, various Danish armies and Alfred’s soldiers follow each other around the country. Backing the Danes into northern Wales causes them to plunder the area until they have enough money to strike back again. But the Anglo-Saxons are keen to stop them from stealing and destroying their harvest. One such battle occurs at Quatbridge. The Danes stay there for the winter but by 897 the army is in a bad shape, as is the English countryside. Still, East Anglia, Northumbria, the Isle of Wight and Devonshire are raided. The Anglo-Saxons defeat the Danes once more in a naval battle.
901–925: Alfred’s Children
Alfred’s legacy is continued by his children, Edward and Ethelfleda.12 The ASC mentions Ethelfleda building many fortifications across England. Edward, in the meantime, fends off their cousin Ethelwald as he stirs up trouble. Edward chases Ethelwald across the country. Ethelwald joins the Danes and in 902 they fight the Kents at the battle of the Holme. In 904 Ethelwald then takes a fleet southwards and rallies the Danes in East Anglia. As they move into Mercia, Edward confronts them but loses. Ethelwald, however, dies and Edward manages a truce with the East Anglian and Northumbrian army. It is known as the treaty of Hitchingford (907).
Now, Edward can focus fully on the Danish attacks. He and Ethelfleda continue to fight them. Especially, Edward’s successes at the battle of Tootenhall in 910,13 and a year later on the retreating Northumbrian army are mentioned. Through sheer fighting power, Edward manages to keep the Danes out of England between 913 and 917.
A new fleet sails in 918 from Brittany to Wales. Both Edward and Ethelfleda move in with their armies to drive them out. Shortly after, Ethelfleda dies. Edward continues to improve, restore and build fortifications. The Danes move around the English countryside. After the siege of Wigmore (921), they take the harvest in Kent, Surrey and Essex. They besiege Maldon, too. Edward goes after them, rebuilding and (re-)fortifying towns along the way. As a result, these towns submit to him as well as the East Anglian army in 921.
When Edward finally learns of Ethelfleda’s death, he swiftly moves into Mercia to make the region submit to him and not Ethelfleda’s daughter. He now also learns of the Danes’ tactics to steal the harvest. Edward moves to Thelwall and Manchester. He repairs the ravaged towns and has the Northumbrians, Scots and Danes submit to him in 924. He dies in 925 and his intended heir, his son Elward only a couple of days later.
925–975: Quick Successions
In the end, it is Athelstan, Edward’s eldest son who succeeds him as king of the English in 925. He marries the sister of king Sihtric of the Northumbrians. When Sihtric dies in 926, Athelstan is quick to take the Northumbrian crown for himself. Effectively, he is now high king to all kingdoms on the island. Sihtric’s cousin Guthfrith tries to invade England but Athelstan expels him in 927. Things then stay quiet until 938. Athelstan and his brother Edmund fight a Scots army that includes many Northmen. These Danes retreat to Dublin after the fight. Athelstan dies in 941 and Edmund takes the crown, only eighteen years old.
The first problem he encounters is that the Northumbrians break their word to him. Instead of swearing their allegiance to him as to Athelstan, they appoint Anlaf14 as their king. Anlaf takes Tamworth and is almost defeated by Edmund, but manages to escape. The two kings eventually make their peace. Anlaf is baptised and dies that same year. Edmund then makes quick work by banishing the two remaining Northumbrian kings. They are Anlaf, son of Sihtric15 and Reynold, son of Guthferth. After Northumbria, Edward overruns Cumberland. He gives it to Malcolm of Scotland on the condition that they will be allies. Upon his death in 946, Edmund’s brother Edred becomes king. He confirms both the alliances with Northumbria and the Scots (947). Yet, the Northumbrians choose Eric16 for their king. Edred takes his army northwards. The local rulers overturn their decision and expel Eric within the year.
By 949 Anlaf Curran17 returns to Northumbria to claim his kingdom. The Northumbrians drive him out and ask Eric back by 952. The pattern of dismissals continues and Eric is asked to leave again in 954. The crown is then handed to Edred. In all, when Edred dies in 955 there is not much stability in the country. Edwy18 is expected to take the crown but dies in 959.
The king of Mercia, Edgar Atheling,19 is then chosen as king of the English. And the ASC hardly comments anymore on the heathens, Danes or plundering. Except for an attack in 966 by Thored, son of Gunner who raids Westmorland.
975–1002: The Second Wave of Attacks
The rule under Edgar is quiet and remarkably peaceful. But things change dramatically after his death. In 975 he is succeeded by his son Edward.20 Unfortunately, Edward is murdered three years later. Then, the teenager Ethelred21 is placed on the throne in 979. And a new wave of Viking attacks hit Anglo-Saxon England.They start in 980 in Southampton, the Isle of Thanet and Chester. More raids follow in Devonshire and Wales (981), Portland and London (982), Watchet (987), Ipswich and Maldon (991). The famous battle of Maldon has infamous consequences. A new round of danegeld is introduced. Ethelred offers Anlaf22 10,000 pounds to go away and leave the Anglo-Saxons in peace.
The Danes leave, but show up again near London. Ethelred’s strategy for the town’s defence is foiled by his ealdorman Edric.23 Edric betrays him to the Danes and the latter manage to escape. They return to London in 994 with Anlaf and Sweyn24 as their leaders. The citizens manage to break the siege, but as a result Anlaf and Sweyn turn to the countryside. They ravage Essex, Kent, Sussex and Hampshire. In an effort to stop them, Ethelred offers them more Danegeld of 16,000 pounds and a winter camp at Southampton. There he signs a peace treaty with Anlaf.25
Despite the treaty the raids don’t stop. More attacks happen in Devonshire, Cornwall, Wales and Watchet (997), Dorsetshire and the Isle of Wight, Hampshire and Sussex (998). The Kents fight the Danes along the Thames in 999. Ethelred has ordered a fleet and pursues the Danes, but to no avail. Instead, the king ravages Cumberland and Anglesey in 1000. It is the force and fierceness of the attacks in 1001 that shakes the English to the core. The Danes are victorious at the battle of Alton.26 They move to Devonshire. The local ruler breaks his allegiance to Ethelred and allows them on his land. They plunder Teignton and many other towns before moving to Exmouth and Pin-Hoo. The Anglo-Saxon army meets them at the village of Pin-Hoo, but the Danes win. The king and his council decided on another tribute. This time of 24,000 pounds.
Only a year later, Ethelred’s orders to kill any Danish criminals escalates into the mass-murder of Danes around the country. It is better known as St Brice’s day massacre of 1002.
1003–1010: A Build Up
The bad news is that Sweyn’s sister is allegedly killed in the massacre. Sweyn’s response is to form an invasion army and head for England in 1003. He finds a useful ally in ealdorman Edric who retreats when he is supposed to meet and fight Sweyn’s troops. Due to Edric’s action, the Danes enter Wilton. Sweyn quickly moves to Norwich and wins the battle of Thetford27 in 1004. He sails back to Denmark in 1005 and returns to Sandwich in 1006. Ethelred tries to stop him by offering him the harvest, but to no avail. The Danes set up a winter camp on the Isle of Wight and later at Reading. The council advises Ethelred to pay more tributes. A sum of 30,000 pounds goes to Sweyn in 1007.
Ethelred, meanwhile, orders a new navy that is ready for action in 1009 at Sandwich. Yet, another betrayal befalls him. Edric’s brother attacks the southern coast and Edric persuades the navy to support him. A storm destroys most of the ships and in effect, the navy. It means that there is no real defence when the next Danish fleet arrives later that year. The Danish leader Thurkill28 sails to Sandwich and marches on to Canterbury. He plunders and raids his way to the Isle of Wight, despite a tribute of 3,000 pounds. Ethelred summons his people to stand against Thurkill. There is Edric once more, and with another betrayal that lets the Danes set up a winter camp on the Thames.
1010–1016: The Remains of Anglo-Saxon Days
In 1010, Thurkill moves his troops to Ipswich. The East Anglian army flees and the Danes take the region. Cambridgeshire holds, but Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire are overrun. The Anglo-Saxon army fails to meet them as the council and Ethelred can’t agree on a course of action. Finally, Ethelred offers more tributes, as well as the lands of Essex, Middlesex, Hertfordshire, Bedfordshire, Huntingdonshire, Northamptonshire, Kent, Sussex, Hasting, Surrey, Berkshire, Hampshire and Wiltshire. When Ethelred aims for peace in 1011, there is another betrayal. Canterbury opens its gates to the Danes and more danegeld is paid. 48,000 pounds this time. Ethelred offers them also ships and asks them to defend the land and he will feed and clothe them in return (1012).
In 1013, Sweyn comes to Sandwich with another invasion army. Northern England succumbs and submits to him. He then moves south, but London stands its ground with Ethelred and Thurkill inside. Sweyn focuses on ravaging the surrounding countryside and the Londoners see no other option than to submit. Ethelred’s wife flees and the king goes to the Isle of Wight before finally joining his family in Normandy. He stays in exile until Sweyn dies in 1014. The Danish fleet crowns Sweyn’s son Cnut29 as the new king of England. But the Anglo-Saxons ask Ethelred back. He fights Cnut at Lindsey and the Danish king has to flee to Sandwich. Ethelred pays another tribute of 21,000 pounds.
Ealdorman Edric makes another betrayal at the cost of the lives of two thanes in 1015. Ethelred takes their possessions. His son, Edmund Atheling defies his father’s orders by marrying the widow of one of the slain thanes. He also plunders the thanes’ properties. Meanwhile, Cnut arrives in Sandwich again and needs little time to conquer most of southern England. Ethelred is sick and Edmund forms an army with ealdorman Edric. Edmund is betrayed as well and Cnut is given Edric’s army in 1015.
1016–1042: The Danish Invasion
A new Danish invasion force arrives in 1016, led by Cnut and Edric. Before Cnut reaches London, Ethelred passes away. Edmund, the next king, immediately starts fighting the Danes at the battle of Assingdon.30 Edmund, too, is betrayed by Edric. The country is finally for the Danes and Cnut is king of all England. He lets Edmund rule Wessex, though and takes Mercia and the norther for himself. Cnut and Edmund become sworn brothers and allies. After Edmund’s death, Cnut rearranges the division of rule in Anglo-Saxon England. In 1017, East Anglia is for Thurkill, Mercia for Edric and Northumbria for Eric.31 Cnut is also sure to take care of Ethelred’s family. He weds Ethelred’s widow and sends both Ethelred’s and Edmund’s son into exile.
All this while, the Anglo-Saxons have continued to pay the Danes tribute. Two sums of 72,000 and 10,500 are paid to Cnut. He uses is to let his army leave for Denmark in 1018. He sails home himself by 1019 and stays in Denmark for two years. Upon his return to England in 1020, he builds the church in Assingdon.32 A year later, he outlaws Thurkill and sails for the Isle of Wight. He reconciles with Thurkill in 1023 and Thurkill is sent to Denmark with Cnut’s son Harthacnut. In turn, Cnut takes Thurkill’s son with him. But he has to go to Denmark anyway to fight off a Swedish army. He fights with Danes and English at his side but loses. It takes him another few years before he can drive out King Olaf (1028) and take the Norwegian crown in the process.
In 1029 Cnuts heads for England again. King Olaf returns to Norway but is killed by his own people. Cnut travels the English isle in 1031 and all submit to him, including the Scots. This same year, William, son of Robert, becomes the new Earl of Normandy. Cnut dies four years later in 1035. Upon his death, Hardacnut his heir is still is Denmark. The council chooses Cnut’s other son Harold to be king of England. He stays on the throne until 1039. By that time, Hardacnut sails for England and is crowned king of the English and Danes. A tribute is paid to him of 21,099 pounds and another 11,048. Harthacnut dies in 1042. Then enters Edward, son of Ethelred, who returns from exile.
1043–1066: Edward v Godwin
Edward succeeds Hardacnut in 1043. At the start of his reign, he relies on three earls: Leofric, Siward and Godwin. His main quarrel will be with Godwin, though. He marries Godwin’s daughter in 1045 and grants earldoms to Godwin’s sons.
Earl Sweyn allies himself to the Welsh king Griffin in 1046 and joins him in his campaigns.33 After he abducts an abbess to get access to her lands, Edward banishes him. Sweyn sails for Flanders where he stays at the court of count Baldwin in Bruges. Meanwhile, his Danish namesake and contender for the throne Sweyn,34 is defeated and exiled in 1047. Both Sweyn’s meet in Bruges to see if an alliance might help the Godwin cause.
Edward is aware of a possible invasion force of Sweyn, and a possible Scandinavian ally. He gathers a fleet at Sandwich. Sweyn, however, has already returned to Denmark in 1047 and seeks peace with England. This is also true for his Norwegian counterpart, King Harold. Edward instead pursues a few pirates that land and plunder Sandwich, Thanet and Essex. He is then asked by the Pope in Rome to stop count Baldwin escaping from Flanders to England. The Pope has a feud with Baldwin who indeed moves to England. Edward takes him prisoner in 1049 but stays in Sandwich himself in anticipation of more pirates attacking England. Meanwhile, Earl Sweyn returns to England after being exiled from Denmark. He wishes to submit to Edward who refuses him. Afterwards, Sweyn kills earl Beorn.35 Edward immediately outlaws him.
After the struggles with Sweyn, Edward has his hands full with the Irish Vikings attacking Wales in 1050. He abolishes the danegeld in the process but has to turn to face the Godwin family once more. Godwin and his sons rally a large army against him. But the army betrays their leaders and Edward outlaws Sweyn once more. Sweyn leaves for Ireland but comes back to fight Edward again. He fails and outlawed a third time. He then leaves for Flanders instead. Godwin sails for Ireland and takes the riches he gains there all the way to Flanders, too. His daughter meanwhile weds Edward. But in a retaliation Edward dismisses her and takes all her riches.
William of Normandy then arrives in England and is entertained by Edward. Godwin, still seeking justification, sails up and down the English coast in 1052. The English army follows him rather than launching an attack. Godwin sails to Wight and Portland and plunders them. His son Harold comes from Ireland and wreaks havoc on the western coast. Edward has his navy ready at Sandwich when Godwin tries to sail to Bruges for the winter. Godwin manages to get past and escape to the Isle of Wight. He meets with Harold and they sail for the Isle of Sheppey. They plunder along the way and go to London to meet the king and reclaim their possessions.
Edward refuses to meet them, but the people rebel and stand behind Godwin. There is a stand-off between two armies and in the end, there is no fight only the exchange of hostages. Godwin clears himself of his crime before Edward. The king restores everything to him, including the riches he took from his (ex-) wife. In turn, the French who had caused the trouble with help of an English bishop are outlawed. The main mischief was made by Eustace, the Earl of Boulogne who wanted Edward’s sister as his wife and stirred up trouble in Godwin’s earldom for which Godwin was punished. Earl Sweyn, Godwin’s son dies upon his return from Jerusalem.
1053–1065: A Dynasty’s End
When Godwin dies in 1053 his earldom falls to his son Harold. In turn, Harold’s earldom falls to Elgar. Elgar, however, is wrongly outlawed and the earldom then falls to Tosty, another of Godwin’s sons.
In 1054, Earl Siward fights the Scots with Danes on his side. Elgar raises and an army of Welsh and Irish and ravages Hereford. Harold moves against him quickly. They make peace and Elgar is clear from further blame. More internal struggles follow in 1056 and by 1057 Edward, the son of Edmund arrives from Hungary. However, before he is able to make any claim on the English crown, he dies.
Elgar is banished once more in 1058. The Welsh king Griffin allows a fleet from Norway to land and in turn, Harold ravages Griffin’s lands from the sea and his brother Tosty from the land. Griffin dies and Edward puts Griffin’s brothers in charge of Wales. In 1063 he outlaws Tosty who flees to Flanders. The Danes and English fight together in Northumberland. There, Morkar, son of Elgar is chosen to be an earl in Elgar’s stead. Earl Harold grants the people’s wish. King Edward dies not much later.
1066–1085: The Norman Invasion
Harold succeeds Edward as king of England in 1066. He has two foes to fight. His brother Tosty comes from Flanders, via the Isle of Wight and plunders England. As Harold moves against him, he also learns that William of Normandy will land with an invasion army. Tosty, upon hearing that, moves northward with his men and plunders the North. Harold’s earls fight him, as Harold stays in the South, waiting for William. They drive Tosty to Scotland where he meets Harald of Norway who has brought a large fleet. Tosty submits to Harald.
Harald and Tosty sail to York and meet with a large force of Earls Edwin and Morkar. The English lose and Harald and Tosty go to Stamford Bridge to collect hostages. Meanwhile, Harold has gathered his own force there. The battle of Stamford Bridge ensures and Harald of Norway and Tosty die. The Norwegians win, but when the bridge falls, Harold claims the victory. He lets Edmund and Olave, son of Harald go.
In the meantime, William of Normandy has landed at Hastings and builds a castle there. Harold takes his army to the estuary of Appledore, but William attacks before his army are gathered. Harald and his brothers Leofwin and Girth are slain and the Normans win the battle of Hastings. Once he has the crown, William devastates the country and battles the enemy from many sides. Between 1067–68 Harold’s sons launch an attack from Ireland but are driven back by William.
Meanwhile, Edmund’s son Edgar Atheling seeks sanctuary with King Malcolm of Scotland. They form an alliance with the sons of king Sweyn of Denmark who arrive with a large fleet in 1069. They try to take York, but the Normans destroy the place and all surroundings before they can get there. The fleet remains in the Humber all winter. In 1070 king Sweyn himself comes to the Humber. Other Danish ships land in East Anglia where they are greeted by the English. This time, the English hope they will help to expel the Normans. Eventually, though, Sweyn and William make their peace. Sweyn leaves with his treasures but many riches are lost in a storm at sea when he returns home.
King Sweyn dies in 1076. There is no more talk of Danes and heathens as the Normans take over. His son Cnut, arrives with an invasion force along the earl of Flanders (whose daughter he has wed). In 1085, king William lets his own army lay waste to the coastal regions to make sure there is nothing of interest for the Danes. By 1087, William dies. Cnut is chosen as the new king of Denmark but slain by his own people quickly afterwards. In England, William’s sons continue his dynasty. The Vikings are no longer mentioned in the ASC as an (invasion) threat.
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|The Conversation – What medieval sources reveal about the true nature of the Vikings|
- The British Library, ‘Language & Literature | English Timeline | Anglo–Saxon Chronicle 11th century,’ Last Accessed July 28, 2017. ↩
- Alison Hudson, ‘Anglo–Saxon Chronicles Now Online.’ Medieval Manuscripts Blog | The British Library. Published February 04, 2016. Last accessed July 28, 2017.
The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica, ‘The Anglo–Saxon Chronicle,’ Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Last accessed July 29, 2017. ↩
- Jan Bill, ‘The Anglo–Saxon Chronicle,’ Vikingeskibsmuseet Roskilde. Last Accessed July 28, 2017. ↩
- Anonymous, The Anglo–Saxon Chronicle. Translated by James Henry Ingram. Produced by Donald B. Killings for Project Gutenberg. Last accessed July 29, 2017.
Another excellent source for the ASC, see: Anonymous, ‘‘The Anglo–Saxon Chronicle.’ The Avalon Project | Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy. ↩
- The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica, “Viking | people,’ Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Last Accessed August 04, 2017. See also: C.J. Adrien, ‘What Was the Difference Between Danish, Norwegian, Swedish Vikings?’ Published 01 July 2017. ↩
- Holy Island is anotehr name for Lindisfarne. ↩
- The island of Sheppey, off the coast of Kent in the Thames estuary. See: Edward Hasted, “The island of Sheppey: Introduction”, in: The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent: Volume 6 (Canterbury, 1798), pp. 207–216 §25. British History Online. Last accessed 4 August 2017. ↩
- Wemburg apparently did not exist, or is not a correct derivation. Charles Oman and Albany F. Major assume the place referred to in the ASC is Wigborough, Somerset. See: Charles Oman, England Before the Norman Conquest. (London: Methuen & Co, 1921), pp. 424. (Third Edition). Albany F. Major, Early Wars of Wessex. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1913), pp. 123. ↩
- Ockley, Surrey. ↩
- King Æthelred I. ↩
- The river Tyne? See: Oman (1921), pp. 451. ↩
- Ætheflæd was Edward’s elder sister. See: The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica, ‘Aethelflaed,’ Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Last accessed August 13, 2017. ↩
- Also (better) known as the battle of Tettenhall, or Wednesfield. The precise location is not known, but is most likely near Wolverhampton, Staffordshire. See: ‘Battle of Tettenhall,’ Pastscape. Last accessed August 05, 2017. ↩
- This Anlaf is most likely Olaf Guthfrithson, son of king Guthfrith of Dublin. See: The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica, ‘Olaf Guthfrithson,’ Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Last accessed August 05, 2017. ↩
- And this Anlaf is Óláfr Sigtryggsson, also known as Amlaíb Cuarán or Amlaíb mac Sitric. He is the son of king Sihtric who is related to Athelstan by marriage (see the year 925). See: The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica, ‘Olaf Sihtricson,’ Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Last accessed August 05, 2017. ↩
- Eric Haraldsson, better known as Eric Bloodaxe. He was a son of Harald Fairhair and became Eric I of Norway between 931–933. He was also twice king of Northumbria in 948 and 952–954. See: The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica, ‘Erik I | king of Norway and Northumberland,’ Encyclopedia Britannica Online.. Last accessed August 05, 2017. ↩
- This is also Olaf Sihtricson (see footnote 15). ↩
- Edwy is Eadwig, Edred’s (half–)brother. See the year 955 in the ASC. ↩
- Edgar Atheling, also known as Edgar the Peaceable, son of King Edmund. See: The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica, ‘Edgar,’ Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Last accessed August 05, 2017. ↩
- Edward the Martyr. King of England (975–978). See: The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica, ‘Edward,’ Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Last accessed August 06, 2017. ↩
- Æthelred II, also known as Æthelred ‘the Unready’ or Ethelred. King of England (978–1016). See the article on The Viking Age Archive: ‘Æthelred ‘the Unready’.’ See also: The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica, ‘Ethelred the Unready,’ Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Last accessed August 06, 2017. ↩
- Another Anlaf. This is Olaf Tryggvason, later to be king of Norway (995–1000). See the article on The Viking Age Archive: ‘Olaf I Tryggvason.’
See: The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica, ‘Olaf Tryggvason,’ Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Last accessed August 06, 2017. ↩
- Edric is Eadric of Streona, Æthelred’s son–in–law. See: The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica, ‘Eadric Streona,’ Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Last accessed August 06, 2017. ↩
- Sweyn I, aka Sweyn I Forkbeard, King of Denmark (c. 987–1014) and King of England (1014). See the article on The Viking Age Archive: ‘Sweyn I ‘Forkbeard’.’
See also: The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica, ‘Sweyn I,’ Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Last accessed August 06, 2017. ↩
- This treaty is known as II Aethelred. See the article on The Viking Age Archive: ‘II Aethelred.’
See also: ‘Aethelred’s Treaty with Olaf (II Atr),’ Early English Laws. Last accessed August 13, 2017. ↩
- Also known as the first battle of Alton and not to be confused with the one that took place in 1643. There is little information on the web, but the Wikipedia entry ‘First Battle of Alton’ states that the battle might either have taken place in the village by the same name in Hampshire (T.D. Kendrick, A History of the Vikings. (New York: Dover Publications, 2004), pp. 262), or an area in West Sussex (M. Lapidge et al (eds.), The Blackwell Encyclopædia of Anglo–Saxon England. (Wiley, 1999), pp. 13–14.) ↩
- Thetford in Norfolk. ↩
- Thorkell the Tall. See the article on The Viking Age Archive: ‘Thorkell the Tall.’
See also: Charles Cawley, ‘Denmark, Nobility,’ Foundation of Medieval Genealogy. Last Updated v3.0 Updated 30 May 2014. Accessed August 06, 2017. ↩
- Canute I, also known as Cnut the Great. King of Denmark, Norway and England. See: The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica, ‘Canute (I),’ Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Last accessed August 06, 2017. ↩
- Battle of Ashingdon. See: ‘Battle of Ashingdon,’ Pastscape. Last accessed August 06, 2017. ↩
- Eric Haakonsson. Earl of Lade, and Northumbria. He is the jarl of Norway who is expelled by Olaf Tryggvason, but defeats him alongside Sweyn Forkbeard in the battle of the Svold in 1000. See: ‘Battle of the Svold,’ The Viking Age Archive. Last Accessed August 06, 2017. ↩
- Ashingdon Minster. During the battle of Ashingdon four years earlier the Danes ravaged and burned the area. See: ‘The History of Ashingdon,’ Ashingdon Parish Council. Last Accessed August 06, 2017. ↩
- Sweyn or Swegen Godwinesson. The Welsh king is Gruffudd ap Llywelyn. king of Gwynedd and Powys, and after 1055 king of all Wales. See: Thomas Jones, ‘Gruffudd ap Llywelyn,’ Dictionary of Welsh Biography. Published 1959. National Library of Wales. Last accessed August 06, 2017. ↩
- Sweyn II Estrithson. Grandson of Sweyn Forkbeard, later king of Denmark. See: The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica, ‘Sweyn II Estridsen,’ Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Last accessed August 06, 2017. ↩
- Beorn is Beorn Estrithson, Sweyn II Esthrithson’s brother. He is killed by Sweyn Godwinson. He can be found as ‘Beorn 3,’ in the PASE database. ↩